Limit and Continuity

Limit and Continuity

In mathematics, a limit is the value that a function or sequence “approaches” as the input or index approaches some value.[1] Limits are essential to calculus (and mathematical analysis in general) and are used to define continuity, derivatives, and integrals.

The concept of a limit of a sequence is further generalized to the concept of a limit of a topological net, and is closely related to limit and direct limit in category theory.

In formulas, a limit is usually written as

 \lim_{n \to c}f(n) = L

and is read as “the limit of f of n as n approaches c equals L“. Here “lim” indicates limit, and the fact that function f(n) approaches the limit L as n approaches c is represented by the right arrow (→), as in

f(n) \to L \ . 
For example, if

 f(x) = \frac{x^2 - 1}{x - 1}

then f(1) is not defined (see division by zero), yet as x moves arbitrarily close to 1, f(x) correspondingly approaches 2

In other words,  \lim_{x \to 1} \frac{x^2-1}{x-1} = 2

This can also be calculated algebraically, as \frac{x^2-1}{x-1} = \frac{(x+1)(x-1)}{x-1} = x+1 for all real numbers x ≠ 1.

Now since x + 1 is continuous in x at 1, we can now plug in 1 for x, thus \lim_{x \to 1} \frac{x^2-1}{x-1} = 1+1 = 2

That means if you want to solve a Limit based question, you have to Factorise given function, then put the value.

You will get your answer…..

Calculas

Calculas

Calculus is the mathematical study of change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. It has two major branches, differential calculus, and integral calculus; these two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus. Both branches make use of the fundamental notions of convergence of infinite sequences and infinite series to a well-defined limit. Generally, modern calculus is considered to have been developed in the 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz. Today, calculus has widespread uses in science, engineering and economics and can solve many problems that elementary algebra alone cannot

Arithmatics, Mathematics

Arithmatics

Arithmetic or arithmetics is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics. It consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations between them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Arithmetic is an elementary part of number theory, and number theory is considered to be one of the top-level divisions of modern mathematics, along with algebra, geometry, and analysis. The terms arithmetic and higher arithmetic were used until the beginning of the 20th century as synonyms for number theory and are sometimes still used to refer to a wider part of number theory

Totally dependent on the operation of Addition,Subtraction, Multiplication and Division.

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Mathematics, Trigonometry

Trigonometry/Function

If one angle of a triangle is 90 degrees and one of the other angles is known, the third is thereby fixed, because the three angles of any triangle add up to 180 degrees. The two acute angles therefore add up to 90 degrees: they are complementary angles. The shape of a triangle is completely determined, except for similarity, by the angles. Once the angles are known, the ratios of the sides are determined, regardless of the overall size of the triangle. If the length of one of the sides is known, the other two are determined. These ratios are given by the following trigonometric functions of the known angle A, where a, b and c refer to the lengths of the sides in the accompanying figure:

  • Sine function (sin), defined as the ratio of the side opposite the angle to the hypotenuse.

    245px-TrigonometryTriangle.svg

\sin A=\frac{\textrm{opposite}}{\textrm{hypotenuse}}=\frac{a}{\,c\,}\,.

  • Cosine function (cos), defined as the ratio of the adjacent leg to the hypotenuse.
\cos A=\frac{\textrm{adjacent}}{\textrm{hypotenuse}}=\frac{b}{\,c\,}\,.
  • Tangent function (tan), defined as the ratio of the opposite leg to the adjacent leg.
\tan A=\frac{\textrm{opposite}}{\textrm{adjacent}}=\frac{a}{\,b\,}=\frac{a}{\,c\,}*\frac{c}{\,b\,}=\frac{a}{\,c\,} / \frac{b}{\,c\,}=\frac{\sin A}{\cos A}\,.

The hypotenuse is the side opposite to the 90 degree angle in a right triangle; it is the longest side of the triangle and one of the two sides adjacent to angle A. The adjacent leg is the other side that is adjacent to angle A. The opposite side is the side that is opposite to angle A. The terms perpendicular and base are sometimes used for the opposite and adjacent sides respectively. Many people find it easy to remember what sides of the right triangle are equal to sine, cosine, or tangent, by memorizing the word SOH-CAH-TOA (see below under Mnemonics).

The reciprocals of these functions are named the cosecant (csc or cosec), secant (sec), and cotangent (cot), respectively:

\csc A=\frac{1}{\sin A}=\frac{\textrm{hypotenuse}}{\textrm{opposite}}=\frac{c}{a} ,
\sec A=\frac{1}{\cos A}=\frac{\textrm{hypotenuse}}{\textrm{adjacent}}=\frac{c}{b} ,
\cot A=\frac{1}{\tan A}=\frac{\textrm{adjacent}}{\textrm{opposite}}=\frac{\cos A}{\sin A}=\frac{b}{a} .
To know more about….see another Post……


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